Moderating Variables in Business Research


Sandeep Vij
Rayees Farooq


This paper explains the rationale for introducing the moderating variables in the models built in business research to identify the causal relationships among the variables/constructs. The study is based on search for moderating variables in business related research published during last 35 years (1980 - 2015), available in online databases EBSCO, ProQuest, JSTOR, ScienceDirect, SAGE and Emerald. The study identifies the variables/constructs being majorly used as moderators in business research. The methods used for studying moderation have been identified and multi-group moderation through structural equation modeling (using AMOS) has been recommended and elaborated. The findings and suggestions of the study are likely to be highly useful, for researchers in the field of commerce and business management, in identifying the moderating variables and practically applying multi-group moderation in business research.


How to Cite
Vij, S. ., & Farooq, R. . (2017). Moderating Variables in Business Research. N. L. Dalmia Institute of Management Studies and Research, 31–44. Retrieved from


  1. Acs, Z.J.and Audretsch, D. B. (1990), "Innovation and Small Firms", MIT Press: Cambridge
  2. Ahmad, H. and Gelaidan, H. M. (2011), "Organisational Culture, Leadership Styles and Employee's Affective Commitment to Change: A Case of Yemen Public Sector", Journal of Organizational Management Studies, Vol. 2, pp. 1-10
  3. Akgiin, A. E. Keskin, H. and Byrne, J. (2008), "The Moderating Role of Environmental Dynamism between Firm Emotional Capability and Performance", Journal of Organizational Change Management, No. 21, No. 2, pp. 230-252
  4. Alharbi, M. F. (2012), "The Moderating Effect of Organizational Culture on the Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Quality Management Practices in Public Hospitals in Saudi Arabia", (Doctoral dissertation, University Utara Malaysia)
  5. Alma'aitah, M. A., Al-Shalabi, F. S. and Aljamal, W. H. (2013), "Talent Management and Competitive Advantage: The Moderating Effect of Knowledge Integration", International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 66, No.11, pp. 19-27
  6. Ambrose, M. L. and Schminke, M. (2003), "Organization Structure as a Moderator of the Relationship between Procedural Justice, Interactional Justice, Perceived Organizational Support, and Supervisory Trust", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.88, No.2, pp.295-305
  7. Anderson, J. C. and Gerbing, D. W. (1982), "Some Methods for Respecifying Measurement Models to Obtain Unidimensional Construct Measurement", Journal of Marketing Research, pp.453-460
  8. Aziz, N. A. and Yassin, N. M. (2010), "How Will Market Orientation and External Environment Influence the Performance among SMEs in the Agro-Food Sector in Malaysia", International Business Research, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 154-164
  9. Balasubramanian, N. and Lee, J. (2008), "Firm Age and Innovation", Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 17, pp. 1019-1047
  10. Banerjee, S. B., Iyer, E. S. and Kashyap, R. K. (2003), "Corporate Environmentalism: Antecedents and Influence of I ndustry Type", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 67, No.2, pp. 106-122
  11. Barrick, M. R. and Mount, M. K. (1993), "Autonomy as a Moderator of the Relationships between the Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance" Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 111-118.
  12. Boon-itt, S. and Paul, H. (2008), "Moderating Effects of Environmental Uncertainty on Supply Chain Integration and Product Quality: An Empirical Study of Thai Automotive Industry", International Journal of Automotive Industry and Management, Vol. 2, pp. 49-61
  13. Bowling, N. A., Khazon, S., Meyer, R. D., and Burrus, C. J. (2015), "Situational Strength as a Moderator of the Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance: A Meta-Analytic Examination", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol.30, No. 1, pp. 89-104
  14. Brik, A. B., Rettab, B. and Mellahi, K. (2011), "Market Orientation, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Business Performance", Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 99, No. 3, pp. 307-324
  15. Bstieler, L. (2005), "The Moderating Effect of Environmental Uncertainty on New Product Development and Time Efficiency", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 267-284
  16. Calantone, J. R., Cavusgil, S. T. and Zhao, Y. (2002), "Learning Orientation, Firm Innovation Capability and Firm Performance", Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 31, pp. 515-524
  17. Carr, J. C., Haggard, K. S., Hmieleski, K. M. and Zahra, S. A. (2010), "A Study of the Moderating Effects of Firm Age at Internationalization on Firm Survival and Short-Term Growth", Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, Vol. 4, No.2, pp.183-192
  18. Chelliah, S., Pandian, S., Sulaiman, M. and Munusamy, J. (2010), "The Moderating Effect of Firm Size: Internationalization of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in the Manufacturing Sector", African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 4, No.14, pp. 3096-3109
  19. Chen, L. J. and Chen, S. Y. (2011), "The Influence of Profitability on Firm Value with Capital Structure as the Mediator and Firm Size and Industry as Moderators", Investment Management and Financial Innovations, Vol. 8, No. 3, pp. 121-129
  20. Chien, Y. C. (2013), "The Effects of Organizational Performance on the Intellectual Capital Accumulation of Taiwan- listed Biotechnology Companies: Organizational Citizen Behaviour as a Moderator", The Journal of Human Resource and Adult Learning, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 40-54
  21. Chockalingam, A. and Ramayah, T. (2013), "Does the Organizational Culture act as a Moderator in Indian Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Projects? An Empirical study", Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 555-587
  22. Corsino, M., Giuseppe, E. and Micciolo, R. (2011), "R&D, Firm Size and Incremental Product Innovation", Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Vol. 20, No.5, pp. 423-433
  23. Damanpour, F. (1992), "Organizational Size and Innovation", Organization Studies, Vol. 13, No.3, pp. 375-402
  24. Dawson, J. F. (2014), "Moderation in Management Research: What, Why, When, and How", Journal of Business and Psychology, Vol. 29, No.l, pp. 1-19
  25. Dijkman, B., Kooistra, B. and Bhandari, M. (2009), "How to Work with a Subgroup Analysis", Canadian Journal of Surgery, Vol. 52, No 6, p.515
  26. Edwards, J. R. and Lambert, L. S. (2007), "Methods for Integrating Moderation and Mediation: A General Analytical Framework Using Moderated Path Analysis", Psychological Methods, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 1-22
  27. Ensley, M. D., Pearce, C. L., and Hmieleski, K. M. (2006), "The Moderating Effect of Environmental Dynamism on the Relationship between Entrepreneur Leadership Behaviour and New Venture Performance", Journal of Business Venturing, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 243-263
  28. Erdogan, B., Liden, R. C. and Kraimer, M. L. (2006), "Justice and Leader-Member Exchange: The Moderating Role of Organizational Culture", Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 395-406
  29. Erkutlu, H. (2011), "The Moderating Role of Organizational Culture in the Relationship between Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours", Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. 32, No. 6, pp. 532-554
  30. Ettlie, J. E. and Rubenstaein, A. H. (1987), "Firm Size and Product Innovation", Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp. 89-108
  31. Floh, A. and Treiblmaier, H. (2006), "What Keeps the E-Banking Customer Loyal? A Multigroup Analysis of the Moderating Role of Consumer Characteristics on E-Loyalty in the Financial Service Industry", Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 97-110
  32. Fuller Jr, J. B., Hester, K. and Cox, S. S. (2010), "Proactive Personality and Job Performance: Exploring Job Autonomy as a Moderator", Journal of Managerial Issues, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 35-51
  33. Garcfa-Zamora , E., Gonzalez-Benito, 0. and Munoz-Gallego, P. A. (2013), "Organizational and Environmental Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Multidimensional Innovation and Performance", Innovation: Management, Policy and Practice, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 224-244
  34. Gibb, J. and Haar, J. (2007), "IT competency predicting market and development Performance: Moderated by Organizational size", Retrieved from PDFs/598.pdf on 12 November, 2013
  35. Gopalakrishna, S. and Bierly, P. E. (2006), "The Impact of Firm Size and Age on Knowledge Strategies during Product Development: A Study of the Drug Industry", IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 3-16
  36. Greenley, G. E. (1995), "Market Orientation and Company Performance: Empirical Evidence from UK Companies", British Journal of Management, Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-13
  37. Grewal, R. and Tansuhaj, P. (2001), "Building Organizational Capabilities for Managing Economic Crisis: The Role of Market Orientation and Strategic Flexibility", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. 67-80
  38. Hage, J. (1980), "Theories of Organization: Form, Processes, and Transformation", Wiley: New York
  39. Hair, J.F., Anderson, R.E., Tatham, R.L. and Black, W.C. (1998), 'Multivariate Data Analysis', 5th ed., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ
  40. Han, J. K., Kim, N. and Srivastava, R. K. (1998), "Market Orientation and Organizational Performance: Is Innovation a Missing Link", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 62, No. 4, pp. 30-45
  41. Hannan, M. T. (1998), "Rethinking Age Dependence in Organizational Mortality: Logical Formalizations", American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 104, No. 1, pp. 126-164
  42. Hannan, M. T. and Freeman, J. (1984), "Structural Inertia and Organizational Change", American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 149-164
  43. Hanvanich, S., Sivakumar, K., and Hult, G. T. M. (2006), "The Relationship of Learning and Memory with Organizational Performance: the Moderating Role of Turbulence", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34(4), 600-612
  44. Harris, L. C. (2001), "Market Orientation and Performance: Objective and Subjective Empirical Evidence from UK Companies", Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 38, pp. 17-43
  45. Henderson, A. D. (1999), "Firm Strategy and Age Dependence: A Contingent View of the Liabilities of Newness, Adolescence, and Obsolescence", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 44, pp. 281-314
  46. Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D. and Stadter, G. (1982), "Functional Importance and Company Performance: Moderating Effects of Grand Strategyand Industry Type", Strategic Management Journal. Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 315-330
  47. Ho, J. and Nesbit, P. L. (2014), "Self-Leadership in a Chinese Context Work Outcomes and the Moderating Role of Job Autonomy", Group and Organization Management, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 389-415
  48. Homburg, C., Krohmer, H. and Workman Jr, J. P. (1999), "Strategic Consensus and Performance: The Role of Strategy Type and Market-related Dynamism", Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 339-357
  49. Huang, K. P. and Wang, K. Y. (2013), "The Moderating Effect of Social Capital and Environmental Dynamism on the Link Between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Resource Acquisition", Quality and Quantity, Vol. 47, No. 3, pp. 1617-1628
  50. Hui, H., Radzi, W. M., Jasimah, C. W., Jenatabadi, H.S., Abu Kasim, F. and Radu, S. (2013), "The Impact of Firm Age and Size on the Relationship among Organizational Innovation, Learning, and Performance: A Moderation Analysis in Asian Food Manufacturing Companies", Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 166-174
  51. Jain, A. K., Giga, S. I. and Cooper, C. L. (2013), "Perceived Organizational Support as a Moderator in the Relationship between Organisational Stressors and Organizational Citizenship Behaviours", International Journal of Organizational Analysis, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 313-334
  52. James, L. R. and Brett, J. M. (1984), "Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 307-321
  53. Jaworski, B. J. and Kohli, A. K. (1993), "Market Orientation: Antecedents and Consequences", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 53-70
  54. Kalkan, A., Erdil, 0. and Cetinkaya, O. (2011), "The Relationship between Firm Size, Prospector Strategy, Architecture of Information Technology and Firm Performance", 7th International Management Conference, Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 24, pp. 854-869
  55. Kannadhasan, M. and Nandagopal, R. (2011), "Firm Size as a Moderator of the Relationship between Business Strategy and Performance in Indian Automotive Industry", Srusti Management Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 4- 15
  56. Kim, J. S., Kaye, J. and Wright, L. K. (2001), "Moderating and Mediating Effects in Causal Models", Issues in Mental Health Nursing, Vol. 22, No.l, pp. 63-75
  57. Kim, T. Y., Cable, D. M., Kim, S. P. and Wang, J. (2009), "Emotional Competence and Work Performance: The Mediating Effect of Proactivity and the Moderating Effect of Job Autonomy", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol.30, No.7, pp. 983-1000
  58. Kirca, A. H., Jayachandran, S. and Bearden, W. O. (2005), "Market Orientation: A Meta-analytic Review and Assessment of its Antecedents and Impact on Performance", Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 24-41
  59. Kock, N. (2013), "Advanced Mediated Effects Tests, Multi-group Analyses, and Measurement Model Assessments in PLS-based SEM", Retrieved on 10 January, 2014 from
  60. Kolb, K. J. and Aiello, J. R. (1996), "The Effects of Electronic Performance Monitoring on Stress: Locus of Control as a Moderator Variable", Computers in Fluman Behavior, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 407-423
  61. Kreiser, P. M. and Davis, J. (2010), "Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Performance: The Unique Impact of Innovativeness, Proactiveness, and Risk-Taking", Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 39-51
  62. Lai, Y. H. (2013), "The Moderating Effect of Organizational Structure in Knowledge Management for International Ports in Taiwan", International Journal of Computer and Information Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 240-246
  63. Lefcourt, H. M. (2013), "The Locus of Control as a Moderator Variable: Stress", Research with the Locus of Control Construct, Vol. 2, pp. 253-270
  64. Li, Y., Zhao, Y., Tan, J. and Liu, Y. (2008), "Moderating Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation on Market Orientation- Performance Linkage: Evidence from Chinese Small Firms", Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 113-133
  65. Lin, C. H., Peng, C. H. and Kao, D. T. (2008), "The Innovativeness Effect of Market Orientation and Learning Orientation on Business Performance, "International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 29, No. 8, pp. 752-772
  66. Ling, Y. H. (2013), "The Influence of Intellectual Capital on Organizational Performance-Knowledge Management as Moderator", Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 937-964
  67. Little, T. D., Card, N. A., Bovaird, J. A., Preacher, K. J. and Crandall, C. S. (2007), "Structural Equation Modeling of Mediation and Moderation with Contextual Factors", Retrieved on 19 February, 2013 from http://kuscholarworks.ku.edU/dspace/bitstream/1808/1505/l/little_card_bovaird_preacher_crandall_ 2007.pdf
  68. Mackinnon, D. P. (2011), "Integrating Mediators and Moderators in Research Design", Research on Social Work Practice, Vol. 21, No. 6, pp. 675-681
  69. Martinette, L. A. and Leeson, A. 0. (2009), "A View Based on Organizational Size: Flow Competitive Advantage Moderates the Learning Orientation/Business Performance Relationship", IJGMS, Vol. 1, No. 4, pp. 45-74
  70. Martinette, L. A. and Obenchain-Leeson, A. (2012), "The Relationship between Learning Orientation and Business Performance and the Moderating Effect of Competitive Advantage: A Service Organization Perspective", Journal of Service Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 43-58
  71. Matsuno, K., Mentzer, J. T. and Rentz, J. 0. (2000), "A Refinement and Validation of the MARKOR Scale", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 527-539
  72. Merlo, 0. and Auh, S. (2009), "The Effects of Entrepreneurial Orientation, Market Orientation, and Marketing Subunit Influence on Firm Performance" Market Letters, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 295-311
  73. Meyer, R. D., Dalai, R. S. and Bonaccio, S. (2009), "A Meta Analytic Investigation into the Moderating Effects of Situational Strength on the Conscientiousness-Performance Relationship", Journal of Organizational Behaviour, Vol. 30, No. 8, pp. 1077-1102
  74. Miles, R. E. and Snow, C. C. (1978), "Organizational Strategy, Structure and Process", Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press
  75. Morris, J. H., Sherman, J. D. and Mansfield, E. R. (1986), "Failures to Detect Moderating Effects with Ordinary Least Squares-Moderated Multiple Regression: Some Reasons and a Remedy", Psychological Bulletin, Vol.99, No.2, pp.282-288
  76. Noor, W., S. W. M., Quaddus, M., Isa, M. F. M. and Daud, Z. (2012), "The Moderating Role of Organizational Size between the Malaysian Cultural Orientation, Islam Hadhari's Principles and Reward Management Practices: A Study in Malaysian Private Organizations", Retrieved on 15 January, 2013 from
  77. Nybakk, E. (2012), "Learning Orientation, Innovativeness and Financial Performance in Traditional Manufacturing Firms: A Higher-order Structural Equation Model", International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol.16, No.5, DOI: 10.1142/S1363919612003873
  78. Ortega, B. H., Martinez, J. J. and Hoyos, M. J. M. D. (2006), "Analysis of the Moderating Effect of Industry on Online Behavior", Online Information Review, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 681-698
  79. O'sullivan, D. and Butler, P. (2009), "Market Orientation and Enterprise Policy", European Journal Of Marketing, Vol. 43, No. 11/12, pp. 1349-1364
  80. Pelham, A. M. (2000), "Market Orientation and other Potential Influences on Performance in Small and Medium- Sized Manufacturing Firms", Journal of Small Business Management, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 48-67
  81. Phipps, S. T. A. and Prieto, L. C. (2012), "Knowledge is Power? An Inquiry into Knowledge Management, its Effects on Individual Creativity, and the Moderating Role of an Entrepreneurial Mindset", Academy of Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 43-57
  82. Porter, M. E. (1980), "Competitive Strategy: Techniques for Analyzing Industries and Competitors", New York: The Free Press.
  83. Pulendran, S., Speed, R. and Widling II, R. E. (2000), "The Antecedents and Consequences of Market Orientation in Australia", Australian Journal of Management, Vol. 25, pp. 119-143
  84. Pulendran, S., Speed, R. and Widling II, R. E. (2003), "Marketing Planning, Market Orientation and Business Performance", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 37, No. 3/4, pp. 476-497
  85. Ramaswami, S. N., Srivastava, R. K. and Bhargava, M. (2009), "Market-based Capabilities and Financial Performance of Firms: Insights into Marketing's Contribution to Firm Value", Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 97-116
  86. Ranger-Moore, J. (1997), "Bigger may be better, but is Older Wiser? Organizational Age and Size in the New York life Insurance Industry", American Sociological Review, Vol. 62, No.6, pp. 903-920
  87. Rhoades, L. and Eisenberger, R. (2002), "Perceived Organizational Support: A Review of the Literature", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 87, No. 4, pp. 698-714
  88. Rose, G. M. and Shoham, A. (2002), "Export Performance and Market Orientation: Establishing an Empirical Link", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 55, No. 3, pp. 217-225
  89. Rothwell, R. and Dodgson, M. (1994), "Innovation and Size of Firm", In Dodgson, M. Rothwell, R. (Eds.). The handbook of Industrial Innovation, Edward Elgar: Aldershot, UK
  90. Russell, C. J. and Bobko, P. (1992), "Moderated Regression Analysis and Likert Scales: Too Coarse for Comfort", Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol.77, No.3,336-342
  91. Savino, T. and Petruzzelli, A. M. (2012), "Timing of Search and Innovation: The Moderating Effect of Firm Age and Size", Retrieved on 20 February, 2013 from
  92. Sharma, S., Durand, R. M. and Gurarie, O. (1981), "Identification and Analysis of Moderator Variables", Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, pp. 291-300
  93. Shrout, P. E. and Bolger, N. (2002), "Mediation in Experimental and Nonexperimental Studies: New Procedures and Recommendations", Psychological Methods, Vol.7, No.4, pp.422-445
  94. Slater, S. F. and Narver, J. C. (1994), "Does Competitive Environment Moderate the Market Orientation- Performance Relationship?" Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 46-55
  95. Sorensen, J. and Stuart, T. (2000), "Aging, Obsolescence and Organizational Innovation", Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol.45, No.l, pp. 81-112
  96. Srivastava, S. (2009), "Locus of Control as a Moderator for Relationship between Organizational Role Stress and Managerial Effectiveness", Vision: The Journal of Business Perspective, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp.49-61
  97. Stock, G. N., Greis, N. P. and Fischer, W. A. (2002), "Firm Size and Dynamic Technological Innovation", Technovation, Vol. 22, No.9, pp. 537-549
  98. Subramanian, R. and Gopalakrishna, P. (2001), "The Market Orientation-Performance Relationship in the Context of a Developing Economy: An Empirical Analysis", Journal of Business Research, Vol. 53, No.l, pp. 1-13
  99. Subramanian, R., Kumar, K. and Strandholm, K. (2009), "The Role of Organizational Competencies in the Market- Orientation-Performance Relationship: An Empirical Analysis", International Journal of Commerce and Management, Vol. 19, No. 1, pp. 7-26
  100. Swamidass, P. M. and Kotha, S. (1998), "Explaining Manufacturing Technology Use, Firm Size and Performance Using a Multidimensional View of Technology", Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 23- 37
  101. Sweeney, P. D., McFarlin, D. B. and Cotton, J. L. (1991), "Locus of Control as a Moderator of the Relationship between Perceived Influence and Procedural Justice", Human Relations, Vol.44, No.4, pp. 333-342
  102. Tang, J., Tang, Z., Zhang, Y. and Li, Q. (2007), "The Impact of Entrepreneurial Orientation and Ownership Type on Firm Performance in the Emerging Region of China", Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 383-397
  103. Tang, W., Yu, Q., Christoph, P. C. and Tu, X. M. (2009), "A New Analytical Framework for Moderation Analysis- Moving Beyond Analytic Interactions", Journal of Data Science, Vol. 7, No.3, pp. 313-329
  104. Tawfik Mady, M. (2008), "The Impact of Plant Size and Type of Industry on Manufacturing Competitive Priorities: An Empirical Investigation. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, Vol.18, No.4, pp. 351-366
  105. Temtime, Z. T. (2003), "The Moderating Impacts of Business Planning and Firm Size on Total Quality Management Practices", Retrieved on March 30,2013, from
  106. Ting, H. F., Wang, H. B. and Wang, D. S. (2012), "The Moderating Role of Environmental Dynamism on the Influence of Innovation Strategy and Firm Performance", International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 5, pp. 517-520
  107. Van Schalkwyk, L. M., Els, C. and Rothmann, I. (2011), "The Moderating Role of Perceived Organisational Support in the Relationship between Workplace Bullying and Turnover Intention across Sectors in South Africa", SA Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1-13
  108. Varum, C. A. and Rocha, V. C. (2012), "The Effect of Crises on Firm Exit and the Moderating Effect of Firm Size", Economic Letters. Vol. 114, No. 1,94-97
  109. Vij, S. and Farooq, R. (2014a), "Multi-Group Moderation Analysis for Relationship between Knowledge Sharing Orientation and Business Performance", International Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 36-53
  110. Vij, S. and Farooq, R. (2014b), "Knowledge Sharing Orientation and its Relationship with Business Performance: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach", The IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 17-41
  111. Vij, S. and Farooq, R. (2015), "The Relationship Between Learning Orientation and Business Performance: Do Smaller Firms Gain More from Learning Orientation?" The IUP Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol. 13, No.4, pp.7-28
  112. Vij. S. and Bedi, H. S. (2015), "Effect of Organisational and Environmental Factors on Innovativeness and Business Performance Relationship", International Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 1-28, DOI: 10.1142/S1363919616500377
  113. Wagner, M. (2011), "Corporate Performance Implications of Extended Stakeholder Management: New Insights on Mediation and Moderation Effects", Ecological Economics, Vol. 70, No.5, pp. 942-950
  114. Walsh, G., Evanschitzky, H. and Wunderlich, M. (2008), "Identification and Analysis of Moderator Variables: Investigating the Customer Satisfaction-Loyalty Link", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 42, No. 9/10, pp. 977-1004
  115. Wang, A. C. and Cheng, B. S. (2010), "When does Benevolent Leadership Lead to Creativity? The Moderating Role of Creative Role Identity and Job Autonomy", Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 106- 121
  116. Wang, C. H., Chen, K. Y. and Chen, S. C. (2012), "Total Quality Management, Market Orientation and Hotel Performance: The Moderating Effects of External Environmental Factors", International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 119-129
  117. Wickramasinghe, V. and Nisaf, M. S. M. (2013), "Organizational Policy as a Moderator between Online Social Networking and Job Performance", VINE: The Journal of Information and Knowledge Management Systems, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp.161-184
  118. Wu, A. D. and Zumbo, B. D. (2008), "Understanding and Using Mediators and Moderators", Social Indicators Research, Vol. 87, No.3, pp. 367-392
  119. Wunnava, S. and Ellis, S. (2009), "IT Capability: A Moderator Model of Competitive Advantage", AMCIS Proceedings, Paper 701,
  120. Yiing, L. H. and Ahmad, K. Z. B. (2009), "The Moderating Effects of Organizational Culture on the Relationships between Leadership Behaviour and Organizational Commitment and between Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction and Performance", Leadership and Organization Development Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1, pp. 53-86